Oksidacijski i antimikrobni učinci alicina
1 Rafaela Bartulović
2 Lana Feher Turković
2 Ana Mojsović Ćuić
2 University of Applied Health Sciences, Mlinarska street 38, Zagreb, Croatia
Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate or diallyl disulfide oxide, C6H10OS2) is a defense organosulfur compound found in garlic (Allium sativum L.) and in other Allium species such as red onion (Allium cepa L.). Allicin is produced by damaging garlic tissue from the amino acid alliin (Sallyl-cysteine sulfoxide) in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme alinase. It is considered a major component of garlic that has been studied and used for medicinal purposes since ancient times. The characteristic and easily recognizable smell of garlic comes from allicin. Allicin is a molecule with a wide range of biological activities. As thiosulfinate, it belongs to reactive sulfur compounds (RSS) and enters into a redox reaction with thiol groups in glutathione and proteins, which is considered essential for its biological activity. It has shown unquestionable beneficial effects on human health, among which the most significant are antimicrobial and antiparasitic effects. Special attention in research is paid to its anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant and cardioprotective effects. Allicin shows potential for the prevention and treatment of several diseases, including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer. It is believed that it has such a biological effect precisely because of its antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. It is clear that allicin has a wide and interesting application in medicine, hence the detailed discussion of its enormous potential in this review. Future applications should focus on the pharmaceutical formulation of allicin, its delivery, and compatibility with food and drugs due to its biosynthesis, instability, volatility, and reactivity.
Keywords: allicin, antioxidant, antimicrobial action